Friday, July 20, 2018 | ePaper

Mystic poet Hason Raja

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Tasiqul Islam :
Hason Raja (1854-1922) was a zamindar, mystic devotee and composer of songs. His full name is Dewan Hason Raja Chowdhury. Hason Raja was born on 24 January 1854 in a zamindar family of village Lakshmansree in Sunamganj subdivision of Sylhet district. His father Dewan Ali Reza Chowdhury was a zamindar of Lakshmansree and Rampasha.
His mother was Hurmat Jahan Bibi. His forefathers came from Audh in Uttar Pradesh and first settled in Jessore and then in Sylhet. His grandfather Birendra Chandra Simha alias Babu Khan was a Kshatriya Hindu who accepted Islam with the faujdar of Sylhet. Hason Raja's father Dewan Ali Reza Chowdhury inherited vast landed property from his paternal and maternal forefathers, and established his zamindari estate in Sylhet. Hason Raja succeeded his father to the zamindari estate at the age of fifteen. He did not take any formal education. Like most of his aristocratic contemporaries, Hason also got education from family environment and tradition. Hason successfully administered his zamindari estate for long fifty two years by dint of his intelligence and self-enlightenment.
He was not above sensuality and luxury, caprice and whim. At the same time, he was kind, generous and devoted to the service of the needy. At the mature age, Hason Raja had a great change in his outlook to life. Under the influence of a Sufi, he got inclined to spiritualism and began composing mystic songs. These songs are the outcome of his creative genius manifesting the reflection of his philosophical and spiritual thoughts. The lucid style of expression of the spiritual knowledge in easy language made them popular to common people. His mystic songs earned him immense social reputation during his lifetime and after. The lyrist Hason Raja is now a household name in Bangladesh.'
An anthology of the songs of Hason Raja titled Hason Udas was published in 1914. A total of 206 songs are compiled in this book. The main theme of the songs is the concept of God, devotion to Him and the spiritual relation between the Creator and the created beings. Besides, the frailty of human life, transience of worldly life, and his lamentation for non-capability in worship and meditation, his helplessness, self-dedication and submission to God have also been expressed in these songs. His concept of body-based metaphysics on the knowledge about God and the soul is the result of a synthesis of the concept of Sufism, traditional Bhabobad and mysticism of his own experience. His songs composed in regional dialect of Sylhet used to be transmitted verbally from one person to another. Now a day, the songs of Hason Raja are practiced in educated society and are transmitted through all sorts of Medias. Rabindranath Tagore, frequently cited Hason Raja when he explained philosophy, religion and folk culture. Thus he projected Hason Raja to the world community. Rabindranath quoted from his songs Momo akhi hoite poida asman jomin and Rup dekhilam re noyone, apnar rup dekhilam re and commented: This Poet sings of the Eternal person within him coming out and appearing before his eyes just as the Vedic Rishi speaks of the person who in him, dwelling also in the heart of the Sun. All the emotion, attraction, worries and anxieties of Hason Raja are expressed centering round this ‘Eternal person.’ He denoted this eternal person as Allah, Hari, Krishna etc and expressed his divine love and devotion, affection and pleasure. At one stage, he did not perceive any difference between his 'own self' (soul) and 'godhead' (divinity):
I do not understand who you are and who am I,
I do not see anything other than identical.
I have expressed my identity and abandoned my self.
You are the sole reality.
I have no existence save and except you;
I have realised that I am nothing beyond yourself.
Hason Raja has been immersed in the depth of love,
Hason Raja does not see anything beyond and except you. ...
I am you, you are myself, and I am frightened,
Hason Raja is now in frenzied dance.
The concept of 'Anal-Haq' is reflected in all these songs.
In his speech, Rabindranath Tagore introduced Hason Raja as 'a rural poet of East Bengal'. It is a fact that Hason Raja composed his songs in the form and style of folk-songs, but his personal passion and emotion, experience and thoughts are so predominant in his theme of songs that these very deeply transcended other common folk-songs.
Nisha lagilo re banka dui noyone nisha lagilo re,
Hason Raja piyarir preme mojila re.
Lagilo re piriter nisha, Hasan Raja hoila bedisha
Chharia diba Lakshmansree ar Rampasha.
Hason Raja gaichhe gan hat-tali dia
Sakshate daraiya shune Hason Rajar priya.  
[Addiction has overcome me, addiction on my inclined eyes, Hason Raja is infatuated in love of his darling.
Addiction of love has overcome Hason Raja
making him bewildered
And he will leave Lakshmansree and Rampasha.
Hason Raja is singing with clapping of hands,
His darling listens standing nearby.]
In these lines of the songs Hason Raja saturated his name and abode in such a way that the theme of the song and the person concerned appear to be inseparable. Even though he used local dialect and folk tune in his songs, his style of singing is unique and exclusively of his own. He is a solitary poet to compose song in this inimitable tune. Zamindar Hason Raja is an 'ascetic poet', not an ordinary 'folk-poet' or 'rural poet'. His songs should reasonably and exclusively be denominated as 'Hason Rajar Gan'.The second published book of Hason Raja is a prose work titled Soukhin Bahar. The theme of the book is an analysis of the physical appearance, nature and characteristics of a bird like korha (a haor bird), animals like horse and elephant, and of the women-folk. Rearing of korha, horse and elephant was his hobby.
He will ever be remembered for his book Hason Udas.
He died in November 1922 at the age of sixty eight.

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