Wednesday, September 20, 2017 | ePaper

Internet of Things

Technology and Applications

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Md Sadikur Rahman Naiem :
The Global Internet of Things Day was April 9. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects or ‘things’ embedded with electronics, software, sensors and connectivity to enable it to achieve greater value and service by exchanging data with the manufacturer, operator and or other connected devices. The new rule for the future is going to be, ‘anything that can be connected, will be connected.’
In a nutshell, it is a giant network of connected things and people where the relationship will be between things-things, people-people and people-things.
The traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), and others, all have contributions to enable the Internet of Things (IoT). Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to inter-operate within the existing Internet infrastructure. More and more devices such as everyday appliances, watches, eyeglasses, wallets and even clothing are coming equipped with sensors that collect information about individuals, their condition and their activities, storing the data and even transmitting it to service providers.
For example, a thing, in the IoT, can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer data over a network. According to the statement of IoT Analytics, there will be between two and six connected things by 2020 for every living person on earth. But the chance of running out of IP addresses because of IoT devices coming online is slim. Steve Leibson from EDN Network puts IPv6 in perspective: “We could assign 105 IP address to every atom on the surface of Earth and still not have an issue.”
Communication method of IoT Devices
An IoT device will have a radio that can send and receive wireless communications. IoT wireless protocols are designed to accomplish some basic services: Operate on low power, use low bandwidth and work on a mesh network. Some work on the 2.4 GHz band, which is also used by Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, and the sub-GHz range. The sub GHz frequencies, including 868 and 915 MHz bands, may have the advantage of less interference.
Applications of IOT
Based on the application domain, IoT products can be classified broadly into five different categories: smart wearable, smart home, smart city, smart environment and smart enterprise. The IoT products and solutions in each market have different characteristics. An overview of some of the most prominent application areas are provided here.
Intelligent shopping systems
IoT systems could be responsible for performing actions, not just sensing things. For instance, it could monitor specific users' purchasing habits in a store by tracking their specific mobile phones. These users could then be provided with special offers on their favorite products, or even location of items that they need, which their fridge has automatically conveyed to the phone.
Energy Management
It is expected that IoT devices will be integrated into all forms of energy consuming devices (switches, power outlets, bulbs, televisions, etc) and be able to communicate with the utility supply company in order to effectively balance power generation and energy usage. Such devices would also offer the opportunity for users to remotely control their devices, or centrally manage them via a cloud based interface, and enable advanced functions like scheduling (eg, remotely powering on or off heating systems, controlling ovens, changing lighting conditions etc).
Environmental Monitoring
IoT typically utilize sensors to assist in environmental protection by monitoring air or water quality, atmospheric or  soil conditions and can even include areas like monitoring the movements of wildlife and their habitats. Other applications like earthquake or tsunami warning systems can also be used by emergency services to provide more effective aid.
Banks can use IoT data in bringing on-demand services closer to customers by providing ATM, KIOSK, and increase the accessibility of services to customers. Our relationship with banks will be transformed. Wearable and biometric devices, cars, homes, offices and even the built environment will initiate transactions directly with banks in real time; therefore face to face service will not be required.
Medical and Healthcare systems
IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems. These health monitoring devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to advanced devices capable of monitoring specialized implants, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids. Other consumer devices to encourage healthy living, such as, connected scales or wearable heart monitors, are also a possibility with the IoT.
Application of the IoT extends to all aspects of transportation systems, i.e. the vehicle, the infrastructure, and the driver or user. Dynamic interaction between these components of a transport system enables inter and intra vehicular communication, smart traffic control, smart parking, electronic toll collection systems,  vehicle control, and road assistance.
Bathroom and Smart Toilet Light
However, the application of the IoT is not only restricted to these areas. A smart bathroom can record and send your weight readings via Wi-Fi to an app on your phone. Moreover, you can create a light that illuminates your toilet bowl based on data from the internet. For example, your toilet can shine red if it's going to rain, or glow yellow if it's sunny and clear outside. Not only is the smart toilet light a useful aid to find the toilet in the dark, but it's a real source of information to help you plan for your day.
IoT impacts
1) Cisco estimates the size of the Internet of Things to be $19 trillion.
2) McKinsey Global Institute expects the Internet of Things will deliver $6.2 trillion of revenue by 2025.
3) GE reports that as of 2013, the Internet of Everything had the potential to add $10 to $15 trillion dollars to the global GDP over the next 20 years.
4) The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) estimates that future users will have up to 5 active addressable devices and as many as 25 passive devices.
So it is clear that, the future of the Internet of Things will not be possible without the support of IPv6; and consequently the global adoption of IPv6 in the coming years will be critical for the successful development of the IoT in the future. Now the best thing that we can do is educate ourselves about what the IoT is and the potential impacts that can be seen on how we work and live.
1. A smarter grid with the Internet of Things. Texas Instruments, 2013
2. L. Atzori, A. Iera, G. Morabito, SIoT:  giving a social structure to the Internet of Things, IEEE Communications Letters 15 (2011).
3. K. Ashton, That ‘Internet of Things’ thing, RFiD Journal (2009).

(Md Sadikur Rahman Naiem, Electronics &
Telecommunication Engineer)

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